Arthur Lupton

 North Craven 
 Heritage Trust 


Thomas Jefferys' map of the County of York was first published in 1771 following his commissioning of three teams of surveyors in the late 1760s. These teams, led by J. Ainslie, J. Hodskinson and T. Donald, used the most refined instruments of the day to carry out a triangulation of the County - sometime incorporating prominent landmarks of neighbouring counties and so avoiding some duplication of the great labour involved in the project of carrying out the Parliamentary Survey of all the counties of England.

Details of the triangulation of Yorkshire have not survived, but astronomers of the time were measuring angles of the order of seconds of arc, so we may assume that terrestrial survey was not notably less accurate than this. At ten miles distance, even a minute of arc subtends only about fifteen feet, a distance less than the thickness of a line on the one inch to a mile scale chosen for this publication.

It is therefore surprising to find that the vertical measures on the map are wildly in error. Ingleborough Hill and Wharnside are both given as 1760 yards high, with Pennigant running them close at 1740 yards. On the sheet which includes Sedbergh, Askrigg and Settle these are the only elevations given, so we may assume that they were determined by hearsay rather than trigonometry.

It is also interesting to see that the road from Settle up on to Malham Moor is shown as leaving the town up Banks Lane and climbing north-eastwards to meet the road from Stainforth at Capersnak - now Capon Hall, and transcribed in the 1775 edition as Capenah. There no longer seems to be much evidence of such a route for more than about a mile out of Settle; it would be interesting if any members could throw some light on the matter.

These observations are taken from the first edition of Jeffery's map, and from a revised edition, first published in 1775, reproduced by Harry Margary, Lympne Castle, Kent, from a copy in the Brotherton Library, Leeds University.


Has your village a pinfold - or penfold? These small enclosures, usually rectangular in shape, surrounded by high stone walls and entered through a gate wide enough to admit a single beast, were for centuries, an essential part of the village.

The late Arthur Raistrick, in his "Old Yorkshire Dales" (1967) refers to the journal of Richard Wigglesworth, freeholders and constable in the manor of Conistone (Upper Wharfedale) in the late seventeenth century,

"It has plenty of records of stray animals taken into the pound or 'pinfold' at the centre of the village, where there is also a little building to serve as a cowshed and stable for stray cattle and horses. There are some closes and a road up to the common called Pinder Stile, where a large number of sheep could be accommodated; the use of this was the reward for the pinder's services. He records in great detail his captures, and accounts for the fines levied for their redemption. One example will suffice.

One black weather with a stroake over ye backe and downe ye flanke
also a stroake downe ye nearer side of ye ribbs and C and H on ye near
horn shee came to mee about ye first day of December 1684"

The importance of the pinfold diminished over the centuries with the enclosure of the common lands, until many were neglected and fell to rubble, or were taken into private ownership when farmsteads and village property - sometimes poorly delineated on title deeds -changed hands. A pinfold that remains intact is an interesting piece of history.

Jenny Hoyle


Settle Town Council's Enhancement scheme has been praised by English Heritage. In a letter to the Council, English Heritage said the work of laying flags and cobblestones had been completed to an above average standard. The scheme was co-ordinated by Mrs Carr, Chairman of the Town Plan Committee and supervised by Mr Miller. North Yorkshire County Council carried out the work under the direction of Mr D Bowie. Funding came from English Heritage and Craven District Council. North Craven Heritage Trust made a small donation to Settle Town Council towards the cost of design fees.

An example of the newly laid cobbles and flags.

An example of the newly laid cobbles and flags.